The timeline is in reverse chronological order, with the first events being the posts earliest on the blog, and the later events being the later posts, which are the posts that are seen first.
The Black Codes were laws that regulated the lives of freed blacks. The laws, though different in each state, all had a similar goal: to keep the blacks as a lower class labor force. Among other things, the laws prevented blacks from voting, obtaining property, and keeping their wages low. These codes caused many tensions between the North and South and between blacks and whites, because the goal of the codes was to keep the races segregated like pre-war America as much as possible.
Lincoln was assassinated on April 14th, 1865, at Fords Theater, where he was attending a play. Actor John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln. The original plan had been for Booth, a Confederate sympathizer, to kidnap Lincoln, but the plan was later changed to assassination. Lincoln died the next morning of his wounds, and Northerners were outraged at this attack. Lincoln was the first President to be assassinated.
Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capitol, was captured by Union troops in April of 1865. On April 9th, 1865, the leader of the Union forces, Grant, and the leader of the Confederate forces, Lee, met to discuss the terms of surrender. The terms were not harsh, as the Union let the Confederates keep their horses to farms instead of taking everything from them. Despite this, many tensions and bitterness was held even after this end to the war.
The 15th amendment to the Constituation allowed all citizens of the U.S. to vote, regardless of race. The wording of the amendment gave the “right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” Women were still not allowed to vote.
The 14th amendment to the Constitution dealt with the issue of what constituted as a U.S. citizen. It granter anyone born on U.S. soil U.S. citizenship. It also grants equal protection under the law for all citizens. It was a big step because in granting everyone, regardless of race, equal citizenship, all people were one step closer to having equal civil rights, at least under the law.
Ratified on December 6th, 1865, the 13th Amendment of the United States Constitution is significant because it frees all slaved in the US, not just those in Confederate states. It reads, “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” It both freed all slaves and prevented any more slavery from happening in the US.
Also known as Camp Sumter, this was a Confederate prison camp located in Andersonville, Georgia. It was built in 1864 because the Confederates wanted to move their prisoners to a more secure site with more food. More than 45,000 Union prisoners passed through it, and 13,000 died there. It was filthy. Soldier John Ranson wrote “The air reeks with nastiness”. Andersonville Prison is significant because so many Union soldiers died there and the hanging of Henry Wirz, who had been in charge of the camp, over its conditions. He was the only person ever charged with war crimes. Today, it stands as a national park.
The Battle of Gettysburg was one of the most important battles of the war. In 1863, Lee marched Southern forces up to Pennsylvania, because he thought it was necesarry to invade the North through that avenue. The South had not fought a battle as far north as Gettysburg and it was their last chance to win the war. The North were victorious, and after the battle, Lincoln gave a short speech now know as the Gettysburg Address, which outlined the plan for the end of the war and rallied the Union troops.